WASTE TIRES AND INNOVATION

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                   Figure. Creative use of Waste Tire by TGG Mentees Batch -II under Mentor                                                                    Anil Chitrakar 

                           Ever wondered about the tires which are no longer roadworthy after they are used? They are stockpiled, dumped in landfills, or just thrown away on roadsides. This linear product use approach results in a massive waste.

              Tires, whether it is electric, solar powered, gasoline, or hydrogen fueled vehicle, are indispensable components for the transportation industry. Scrap tires have potential to harm local environments and negatively affect human health. The most common problems associated with waste tires are open air fires and the creation of breeding ground for rodents and mosquitoes. It’s bad but it’s a fact. According to The Freedonia Group Report it is estimated that the world demand for tires is forecast to rise 4.7 percent per year through 2015 to 3.3 billion units, approximately same amount of tires are disposed of every year and almost 20% of them are illegally dumped in landfills, or just thrown away on roadsides.

              Is this the end of the story? No, a these approaches can ultimately lead towards right environmental choice and would also make good financial sense.

Circular Economy

              The alternative to the growing waste concerns is to develop a circular economy which goes much further than recycling and there is a strong business case for development. Building recycling industries to recover, recycle and process the waste tires – with the focus on the reduce and reuse principles, unemployed people can find gainful employment, SMEs can be developed and, the environmental disaster that waste tires represent can be economically and effectively addressed. Analysis by McKinsey estimates that shifting in this direction of circular economy model could add $1-trillion to the global economy by 2025 and create 100 000 new jobs within the next five years. It’s worth it!

Energy

              A normal used passenger car tire weighs 7.2 kg; it contains at least 238 MJ of thermal energy, which can be useful in some dedicated facilities. In thermoelectric plants, tires are fed into the hearth without any pre-treatment or slicing. This process is an economically viable alternative for used tires that cannot be effectively retreaded, generating a large amount of by-products. Each ton of input (as tires) generates 287 kg of solid residue made of zinc oxide, ferrous slag and gypsum, each with a well-defined market. The use of old tires as fuel has the advantage that it does not generate any waste beyond what is usually generated by a standard cement production process. Sliced tires can be fed into the kiln with the other raw materials. The energy in the rubber provides the heat while the combustion residues are incorporated in the cement without compromising the product’s quality. The ferrous material from the steel wire partially substitutes the large quantities of iron ore used in cement production. Several fuels are used in a cement plants including coal, natural gas and oil. The rubber may provide roughly 20% of the heat required in the kiln, generally at a lower cost than the other fuels. The high temperature of combustion, around 1400°C, under appropriate supply of oxygen, ensures complete burnout of the organic material.

Construction Applications

              Rubberized asphalt is an alternative to traditional paving material that combines the strength and versatility of asphalt and the longevity and flexibility of recycled rubber. Derived from scrap tires, the material is said to be longer lasting, safer, less costly and friendlier to the environment than traditional paving materials.

              Scrap tires can be processed into ground rubber to modify asphalt thereby creating rubberized asphalt and rubber asphalt concrete. Asphalt companies buy large quantities of shredded rubber crumbs to mix with their hot melt asphalt to make pavements cheaper. Other road construction companies purchase large quantities of medium sized shredder tires to use in road beds for minimizing vibrations and for highway sound barriers. Rubberized asphalt is not just sustainable, but actually better than the traditional alternative, better in every way.

              Old tires can be used in barriers such as collision reduction, erosion control, rainwater runoff, wave action that protects piers and marshes. With a blend of art and engineering, the civil engineering applications of waste tires are emerging.

Re-Purpose

              We can use old tires in child’s play areas. They’re great for setting up an obstacle course or making a sandbox or a tire swing. Tire mulch is also sold as padding for children’s playground. We can make soles for shoes or even entire pairs of flip-flops. We can make livestock feeders or pet house out of old tires. Used tires can be transformed into furniture with a little pie of skill and imagination. Since tires are black and they retain the heat from the sun easily, you can use them in your garden for growing your plants earlier. Basically, you can grow plants and veggies in tires earlier than in the ground. This trick works great with those species that require more warmth. You can make an outdoor storage bin using old tires secured together with some plywood and painted in your favorite color. Old tires can be transformed into a cool coffee table or other cool pieces of furniture. Just dive, there’s a world of thing you can do. Re- think!              

              It has been years since we dumped the opportunities for business through valuation of the waste. But, an era is evolving to turn the wastes in every bin into something really spectacular and create value. It is a new shift in the resource management approach, a transition to the unexplored territory and it provides battle against the traditional inertia of waste management. This is the way towards sustainable economies and eco-innovation, and can drive development across the board. This benefits all of us.

About the authors:

Bipin Karki is a graduate student of Renewable and Clean Energy at University of Dayton, and Former TGG Mentee at WWF Nepal (carried out project to reuse tires). He can be reached at bpn_krk@hotmail.com

Bishnu Parajuli is a undergraduate student of Industrial Engineering at Institute of Engineering, Thapathali Campus and the President of Society of Industrial Engineering Students – Nepal. He can be reached bishnu.parajuli13@gmail.com.

As Published in : http://www.sajhapost.com/2017/01/11/58081.html

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“Jalbayu ka Kura”

Climate Change and Nepal

earth-globe1“The world is dynamic.” it was said by my environmental teacher in school which resonates in canvass of my memory since then. Sometime I ponder, Are we such dynamic? Are we so mad at changing world? Why we always look for development without its implication? Are we shameless & reckless in saving mother earth? Are we even serious about climate change? Only we are supposed to talk not act. The myriad of questioning, self satisfying answers and baseless hypothesis used to come in my mind. Education is change maker, I used to doubt on it. But after been educated, I am not only aware of burgeoning development across world but also consequences brought by them on nature as well human life. I am aware, I participate, I want change to come in thought and action. I want to see visible change not in future but also in present.

The climate…

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Water Mill cum Hydro Electric

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Lima Mill used for grinding 

                                                                                                                     Photo Source:angelfire.com

                                                Water mill is one of the traditional kind of grinding wheel that uses wheel or turbine to drive a mechanical process for various end use such as flour grinding,lumber or textile production.This type of technology is applicable in hill areas where there is enough head for running turbine. The water diverted from river or canal provides enough kinetic energy to drive wheel or turbine via head race channel or pipe.The force of the water’s movement drives the blades of a wheel or turbine, which in turn rotates an axle that drives the mill’s other machinery.

                                          Water leaving the wheel or turbine is drained through a tail race, but this channel may also be the head race of yet another wheel, turbine or mill.This kinda of water mill is suitable in hilly and Himalayan region of Nepal where enough head is available.Not only for milling but it can generate electricity which can empower local community which can contribute for decreasing load on central load distribution.

Water Mill cum Micro hydro in Aghakhola, Palpa

                           This is good example of use of appropriate technology helping people to live under light. The micro-hydro generates electricity to operate mill services for customer and provides power in night to local resident in vicinity. 

ORGANIC COMPOSTING IN A BIN

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                        Organic waste can be recycled at the household level to produce compost manure. Composting is the most simple and common method for recycling household organic waste. Composting is the process of optimizing the environment in the waste for microbial activity to decompose organic matter into valuable nutrients for the soil. Household composting involves the following three stages: waste preparation, degradation of waste and finishing of waste.

Waste Preparation

                 Waste needs to be sorted and prepared for rapid degradation. This includes the following steps:

                   Mix the waste to ensure that the carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N) is close to 25:1. If the waste has too much carbon (normally brown waste such as dried leaves, saw dust) it should be mixed with waste that has high nitrogen content (also known as green waste such as kitchen waste). Kitchen waste only normally has a suitable C:N ratio for composting.

                    Chop the waste into small pieces. Large pieces of organic waste should be cut to small pieces to accelerate the composting process. Adjust the moisture content to about 50 per cent. A compost pile with 50% moisture should feel moist but water should not be dripping from it. Add a starter such as mature compost or effective microorganisms (EM) to speed up the composting process.

In-vessel composting

                  Compost can be made in bags or bins. Normally holes are made in the bin or bags to allow aeration. Compost bins can be made from 100 to 200 liter plastic bins or barrels. In order to allow proper aeration, the bin is normally divided into two sections with a grill separating the two sections. Organic waste is put into the top section and allowed to degrade and once the compost is prepared it is removed from the bottom section. Because of the natural draught created in the bin by the grill and the holes, frequent turning of the waste is not required in this method.

 

Why compost organic waste?

To manage the waste problem

                 We know that waste is a huge problem in many cities of developing countries and that organic waste represent almost 80% of the amount of waste. By composting this organic waste, we can help alleviate a large part of the waste management problem.

To produce a new useful and valuable product 

                 Knowing that chemical fertilizers are mining the soil and are not available for every potential client (they are often expensive and not always accessible), we can offer a more accessible product that is eco-friendly available at a stable price.

To reduce Greenhouse gas emissions


            In opposition to uncontrolled anaerobic fermentation of organic waste in landfills, compost and the composting process do not produce methane and therefore do not add any Greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. Methane has a global warming potential 24 times stronger than CO2.

To produce organic fertilizer

                     
The demand for organic food is increasing in Kathmandu valley, but organic farmers experiment a lack of fertilizer, as chemicals can’t be used in organic farming.

NOTE: Writer is no expert this are his experience as part of training on Bio Degradable Solid Waste Management  in Bin. The training was organized by Global Powershift Nepal to as training to trainer.  

Hydraulic Ram Pump : Zero Energy Solution

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               The hydram is an automatic pumping device powered by falling water. The hydram uses a large amount of water falling through a small height, to lift a small amount of that water to a much greater height.

                 Each cycle happens very quickly, about 60 times a minute or once a second (although the cycle can be between about 30 and 120 times a minute). Since the cycle happens very quickly it is easiest to explain how it works by looking at the four stages:

Acceleration

                        When the waste valve is open, water flows down the drive pipe and comes out the open valve. The water flowing past the open valve drags past it, trying to close it. The flow down the drive pipe through the impulse valve gets accelerates. As it gets faster, it drags harder on the valve until it is strong enough to drag it closed.

Compression

                         When the waste valve closes, the water flowing down the drive pipe cannot escape through it. At the moment valve closes, the water is travels very fast and suddenly it has nowhere to go. As the water increased speed, it gains momentum. Since the water cannot escape, the momentum changes to pressure-energy and the water in the pump body compresses. This leads to a sudden rise in pressure, called a “water hammer”. The water pressure rises to a much higher level that the pressure in the pump’s air chamber.

Delivery

                        Because the pressure rises higher than the pressure in the air vessel, the delivery valve is pushed open and water flows through it. The pressure in the pump body drops quickly to equal the pressure in the air vessel. The water coming down the drive pipe slows down and the pressure in the pump body drops. As soon as the pressure falls enough to be lower than the pressure in the pump’s air vessel, the delivery valve closes. The delivery valve is a one-way valve, which stops water flowing back from the air vessel into the pump.

Recoil

                              When the delivery valve closes, there is still some pressure in the pump body and drive pipe. The valves in the pump are closed, so the only direction in which the water can move is back the way it came. The water coming down the drive pipe has stopped, so the pressure energy can be released by moving back up the drive pipe. The water in the pump body bouncing back makes the pressure in the pump body fall low enough for the waste valve to reopen. The waste valve reopens because of its own weight. The low pressure in the pump body means that a small amount of air is sucked in through the snifter valve. This air waits under the delivery valve until the next cycle when it will get pushed into the pump’s air vessel. This makes sure that the air vessel always stays full of air.

                                    Figure. Ram Pump Installation at Badegaun, Godawari

                        During each pumping cycle only a small amount of water is pumped. Most of the momentum harvested from a large amount of water is transferred into a small amount of water. The high pressure in the pump body pushes water through the delivery valve and into the air vessel. It provides the power to push the small amount of water much farther uphill than the big amount of water fall downhill.

                        While a hydram is working, water flows out of the waste valve. This happens during the ‘acceleration’ stage of each pump cycle. It is the noise of the “water hammer”, the splashing of water, and the closing of the waste valve that people notice when they see a working hydram. The noise varies from pump to pump. The water leaving the waste valve is often called ‘waste’ water. Although ‘waste’ water is not delivered by the hydram it is the movement-energy harvested from this water that pumps the water that is delivered. A better name for ‘waste’ water would be ‘used’ water.

                                     Figure. Ram Pump Installation at Badegaun, Godawari

Components Of A Hydram And Their Functions

  1. Intake: structure at source that diverts flow of water to the hydram system;
  2. Feed pipe or canal: delivers water from the source to the drive tank;
  3. Drive tank: provides storage to ensure a constant flow to the hydram and removes sediment from the water;
  4. Drive pipe: feeds water to the hydram;
  5. Hydram: pump unit that delivers a small amount of the drive flow to the delivery pipe;
  6. Pump house: to protect the pump and fittings from accidental damage or theft;
  7. Delivery pipe: delivers water from the hydram to the delivery tank;
  8. Delivery tank or pond: stores the water pumped by the hydram. Can be a cement based structure or a lined pond;
  9. Distribution system: distributes water to the users. Piping can take water to households, tap-stands or fields.

Starting a pump

                Although ram pumps often start very easily they can require a little coaxing particularly the first time that they are run. Procedure varies according to drive head in the system with large drive head requiring extra care to starts a pump.

  1. Open the waste vale fairly quickly.
  2. Water will flow out through the open waste valve until it suddenly shuts.
  3. If waste valve automatically reopens, the pumps should continue to run on its own. Some time you need to reopens the waste valve until it creates delivery head.
  4. If waste valve does not reopen automatically for long time, you must prime the delivery system manually by filling the delivery pipe until sufficient delivery head is available for the pump to operate.

    Figure. Installed Ram Pump at Dhungkharkha, Kavre

Source: Centre for Rural Technology/Nepal(CRT/N). All right reserved to CRT/N.

“Jalbayu ka Kura”

earth-globe1

           “The world is dynamic.”, it was said by my environmental teacher in school which resonates in canvass of my memory since then. Sometime I ponder, Are we such dynamic? Are we so mad at changing world? Why we always look for development without its implication? Are we shameless & reckless in saving mother earth? Are we even serious about climate change? Only we are supposed to talk not act. The myriad of questioning, self satisfying answers and baseless hypothesis used to come in my mind. Education is change maker, I used to doubt on it. But after been educated, I am not only aware of burgeoning development across world but also consequences brought by them on nature as well human life. I am aware, I participate, I want change to come in thought and action. I want to see visible change not in future but also in present.

                  The climate change is most debated topic. Many believe it is happening and other argue that we are utilizing resources within earth, produce from earth so climate change is hoax. Its simply to let people remain in fear and benefit certain particular corporate sectors, INGO’s, NGO’s and environmentalist. There are always propaganda, conspiracy theories to distort facts and to left common people in bewilderment.Whatever may be side of coin, but change are visible and its happening rapidly then calculated rate. So Climate Change is happening, it can be felt and results are visible.

                          Climate change is not entirely anyone’s fault. But it will be everyone’s mis-happening if it is not abated soon enough. Many resources which are taken as granted by us will be history for forth coming generations. The developed nation, developing nation as well underdeveloped nation will be facing similar problem but mitigation may vary as richer will at least have chance to face it more, as of advanced technologies and facilities. The rapid population increment, depletion rate of fossil fuel & emission’s, haphazard industrial development, unmanaged urbanization, mismanagement of waste, negligence in developmental works, carbon mishandling and others. Lets not focus on problem, but concentrate on solution. The solution is commitment for change, to divert from current path to greener and innovative approaches of solving problems, clear ways of mitigation & adaptation based. There is no single solution to reduce climate change but mutual co-operation and goals are essential, no matter how much diverse nations of world might be in political system, geography, culture, religion. This is single opportunity to forget yester years doubt, mending relations and move forward for global goals for attaining distinct climate control goal.

                  Nepal, a mountainous country, blessed by natural diversity, perennial rivers, glaciers, mountains, lakes, proudly hosting tourism as one of major occupation will be in disastrous effect. The changes are already visible as snow clad mountains are fading off, frequent avalanches, snow lake burst off, dry & wet landslide are happening in enormous rate. Likewise, altogether 14 glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs).have happened between 1935 & 1991 in Nepal. In total, 21 GLOFs have been identified as being potentially dangerous at present. In this way, CC and livelihoods integral part and have vice versa relationship. The low income & subsistence users are about 38% of total population Nepal lies below the poverty line have hard time to afford for their livelihoods in Nepal. That is a great challenge to cope with climate change induced hazard & extreme events. The livelihoods of more than 80% local people of hilly region are heavily depending on climate sensitive area such as agriculture, forest and livestock and on other natural resources such as water & irrigation.

                 Scientific statements regarding changing climate of Nepal are pronouncedly focused on temperature rise at the rate of 0.06°C per annum. Such a rise in average temperature is variable across the country, being higher in the mountains and Himalaya (0.08°C) as compared to low-lying terai (0.04°C). Climate change scenarios indicate that warming at higher elevations will lead to a reduction in snow and ice coverage, which in turn will lead to an increase in the frequency of climate-related disasters, including floods and droughts, as well as cause changes in precipitation at a regional scale. Changing climate will also likely shift the geographic range of crop pests, weeds, and diseases , as well as plant pathogen life cycles, requiring new crop management strategies . This justifies the strong need of understanding climate change at the regional scale and its relationship with socio-economic and biophysical context in order to develop mitigation and adaptation programs and minimize the risk at farm level in mountain region of Nepal.

Act of silence will lead us nowhere. Even if we speak it wont matter much what is prime issues are action. How much we are able to act bring impacts before its too late. The good story is, we are not being mute spectator of fading history of earth but we are enabling to re-write one. The children are aware, youth are taking action and experts are working for finding optimal solution for checking climate change issues. The clean technologies, which were barely in experimentation few years back are greatly replacing traditional one, reducing carbon emission, providing energy access to urban settlement to rural livelihood. The dependability on fossils fuel have decrease significantly in industrial, automotive, and other sector. People are caring the environment they live in. The organization working in clean energy, environment, developmental works, policy planning are empowering youths, youths in turn are being harbinger of change in country. We not only care but want to see changes happening. Still there are vacuum to fill and bridge to built. The Bagmati clean campaign, Hariyo ban initiative, community forest, rural energy access, micro-hydro development, green entrepreneurship, clean energy like solar, wind, hydropower are few to name best implemented or are in the phase of implementation. The mass awareness campaign is slowly helping us to shape our current generations and change their attitude towards climate change. The individuals are more clear about their roles, responsibilities and action that can help to reduce impacts of climate change.

                       There is still long way to go to reduce impacts of climate change. The right policy, governmental support at national level will not be able to completely solve it, But commitment as well as participation of international community should be towards nation like Nepal where still large population are under poverty who really have to think for next day meal. The rural community should be empowered where solution for climate change will not only generate environmental values but also helps in socio-economic generations. The approach should be bottom up and vice versa. The solution should encompass all geographical regions, caste, creed, ethnicity and propel towards greater human, environment relations which has to be win win solution for both. There has to be development of mutual existence, growth and harmony between nature , natural resources and humans.

 

Reference

1. Mool, PK; Bajracharya, SR; Joshi, SP (2001)Inventory of Glaciers, glacial lakes, glacial lake outburst floods monitoring and early warning system in the Hindu-Kush Himalayan region, Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal:ICIMOD

2. Dahal, H., Pokhrel, M. and Pandey, B., (2011) National Adaptation Program of Actions to Climate Change: Food Security and Agro-Biodiversity Management in Nepal. Paper presented in Special Information Seminar of CGRFA-13 on Climate Change and Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture: State of Knowledge, Risks and Opportunities, FAO, Rome, 16 July 2011, Red Room (A-121)

 

3. Gautam, A. K. and Pokhrel, S. (2010) Climate change effects on agricultural crops in Nepal and adaptation measures. Presented in Thematic Working Group (agriculture and food security) meeting, Feb 23rd, 2010, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Photo Source : https://www.living-water.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/earth-globe1.jpg

Solar Cookers

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Introduction:

Nepal was once known for its dense forest, however in present only 29% of the cover remains. About 87% of the domestic energy in Nepal is produced by firewood. This percentage is close to unity in remote regions. Wood is used for cooking as well as space heating. The shortage of fuel wood in many parts of Nepal is prominent and collection has become more and more time consuming. Usually it is women and children who collect and carry wood to their home to use for food preparation. On an average, 4-6 hours a day is spent on collection of fire wood. In this context, cooking with the help of solar energy can be one of the solutions for this alarming situation. 

Solar cooking is a matured technology which many of the developing countries like India, China etc. has successfully promoted. There are several hundred thousand solar cookers in India and China.

Principle:

Though there is various type of solar cooker. The basic principle is to convert the sunlight into heat. Some of the basic principles are – 

  • Concentrating sunlight: A reflective mirror of polished glass, metal or metalized film is used to concentrate light and heat from the sun into a small cooking area, making the energy more concentrated and increasing its heating power.
  • Converting light to heat: A black or low reflectivity surface on a food container or the inside of a solar cooker will improve the effectiveness of turning light into heat. Light absorption converts the sun’s visible light into heat, substantially improving the effectiveness of the cooker.
  • Trapping heat: It is important to reduce convection by isolating the air inside the cooker from the air outside the cooker. A plastic bag or tightly sealed glass cover will trap the hot air inside. This makes it possible to reach similar temperatures on cold and windy days as on hot days.

Types 

In general there are two type of solar cooker. The box-type and concentration type.

Types-of-Solar-Cooker